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Double Cylinder, Simple 

and Cross Compound 



1 T^hf * _^—- >> 



Emerson -Brantingham Implement Co., 

i Iiicorpora.tE!(] ) 

Rockford^ Illinois 



Double Cylinder, Simple and 
Cross Compound Engines 


( Incorpoi-ated ( 


Form A241 — 5m — 5-14 



Oil Holes 
And Holes 
For Fittin^^s 









Protect the 



Directions for Operating Reeves 
Cylinder, Simple and Cross Compound Engines 

4-u- u^^ ^^^^^ *^*"^ ^^'^^ ^^'^^^ '^^ ^^^" ^^'h^" ^^^ trimming box is opened is 
this book, the next thing that should be done is to carefully read it. The mar- 
ginal index will help to find the subject on which information is desired. 

The small and delicate trimmings, also a kit of tools are in the wooden 
box, other parts are m the smoke box and in the fire box of the boiler. 

All the oil holes, also holes in pipes and in the boiler are filled with a 
wooden plug to keep the cinders and dust out during transportation. If 
by any means a plug is missing, great care should be taken to clean out 
the hole before the oil cap or fitting is attached. 

In placing the steam guage, the syphon should first be filled with 
water. The tube in the guage is filled with air which is cotnpre.ssed by 
the water in the syphon and in time the water will absorb the air. The 
tube will then be filled with water which cannot get back to the .syphon 
and in Ireezmg weather will ruin the guage. Therefore, once a year before 
freezing weather comes, the guage should be taken off and the water ex- 
tracted ±rom it, which can be done by a motion similar to that of starting 
the ink in a faulty fountain pen. 

After the fixtures are all placed, the boiler can be filled so that the 
water shows m one-half of the glass. Before starting the fire see that 
the correct bushing is in the exhaust nozzle. The coal bushing is in place 
when the engine leaves the factory. If wood or straw is used for fuel, 
the bushing should be changed to the one having on it the correct marking! 
If very poor coal is used, it is sometimes desirable to use the wood bushing 
in the exhaust nozzle, and in case of very good wood, the coal bushing 
may be used. The wood bushing can also be used when the straw is excep- 
tionally good. Between the three bushings, the correct draught can be 
had to suit any kind of fuel. 

When the steam guage shows 10 or 15 pounds pressure, the blower 
may be turned on to force the draught and after the boiler is hot and 
steam is almost up to the working pressure, the tubes should be cleaned 
as considerable soot adheres to them while starting the fire and getting 
up steam. 

When firing with coal break up the lumps so that the largest piece 
is about the size of a man's fist. Keep the fire not more than 5 inches 
thick. When firing spread the coal on the thin places and never allow 
the fire to burn out in spots, as cold air will rush into the fire box and 
cool off the boiler, which will necessitate the burning of an undue amount 
of fuel. Some kinds of coal will clinker when .stirred from the top, especially 
if the fire is quite hot. Keep the fire clean by shaking the grates. 

Keep the fire door clo.sed as much as possible, as nothing will cause 
the tubes to leak as much as holding the fire door open too long when the 
boiler is hot, thus allowing cold air to rush into the fire box, which will 
happen especially when the engine is pulling a heavy load. The fire door 
should be closed after each shovel of coal is distributed over the fire. 

Control the fire by the draught door. Open it wide when getting up 
steam and partially open it when engine is running. Never check the 
fire by opening the fire door. Keep the ash pan cleaned out; nothing will 
ruin the grates like an accumulation of ashes. 

In firing with wood, keep the fire box well filled, placing the wood 
so that there will be no hollow places. Open the draught door just enough 
to admit air to support combustion. A great volume of air rushing through 
an open fire will bring poor results. 


Grates for 
Other Fuel 

for Straw 

Dead Plate 

Straw Ashes 


Fire Brick 

the Rods 




A screen spark arrester is provided for wood and straw burning and 
should be used with the cone shaped screen pointing upward. This will 
afford a free outlet for the gases. When the screen is pointing downward 
(the old way) it will retard the draught which will cut down the steaming 
capacity of the boiler. 

_ In the strawburning engine, there is a full set of grate bars furnished, 
which can be used for burning coal and wood. In this case the adjustable 
dead plate should be drawn back to allow the full length of the grates for 
service. Long tongs are provided for handling the grates and the dead plate. 

In burning straw use a grate bar in every third place, leaving a larger 
space between each bar, thus allowing the matted straw ashes to be stirred 

Adjust the dead plate to suit the condition of the straw and load. 
The second notch from the tube sheet may be best for average conditions. 
The advantage in pushing the dead plate forward is that the fire burns 
from the forward end of the fire box, thus reducing the amount of flying 
straws and getting the full value of the fire arch. Also when the fire 
is thin, if the draught door is left wide open, there it not so much air 
rushing through the fire box. 

Keep the ashes from under the grates. Pull them on to the outer 
ash pan where they can be made wet with hose provided for the purpose. 
Scrape the tube sheet from time to time when straw ashes accumulate over 
them. A scraper is provided for the purpose which is used at the peep 
hole of the boiler. 

If the straw is fed too fast, it will hinder combustion and less heat 
will be made than if fed moderately. Only stir the fire to get the ashes 
through the grates, which should only be done when necessary to clear 
the fire for draught. Much stirring will cause flying straws which will 
lodge across the tubes and much scraping of the tube sheet from the peep hole 
will be necessary. See that the swinging door in the straw chute works 
freely. After heavy firing never let cold air rush through the fire box, as 
the sudden contraction of the ends of the tubes will cause them to leak. 

The straw burning fire arch can be left in the fire box when burning 
wood or coal. It is especially good in burning bituminous coal, as it burns 
up the smoke. 

Before starting the engine see that the stufling boxes are packed. 
If the boxes are filled with packing, they will run with less leakage and 
less friction than if a little packing is used, which will have to be drawn 
up so tight that it is apt to cut the rod. 

See that all grease and oil cups are filled and other parts are oiled. 
Directions for operating the REEVES cylinder oil pump are attached to 
the pump. There is an oil pipe in the differential gear hub which might 
be neglected, especially if the gearing is enclosed in a case. An opening 
in the side of the gear case is provided for this oiling. The differential 
pinions which are also hid by the casing should be oiled through the same 
hole in the casing. 

When the gearing is incased, the teeth are apt to be neglected. A 
door in the casing is provided for examination of the teeth and should 
be frequently looked after. The lifetime of a bearing or gearing largely 
depends on how well it is lubricated. A good way to lubricate the gear 
teeth is to apply axle grease occasionally and liquid oil continuously by 
means of the oil cups on top of the gear shields. 

Use only a good grade of cylinder, engine and hard oil. If a cheap 
grade is used, it will cost more in the end, much more of it will be required 
to do the work and the results will not be as good. Use plenty of good 
oil when the engine is new as it will be a paying investment. 



Low Water 
and Fusible 

and Pump 



of Steam 

In starting, when the cylinders are cold, go slow to allow the water to 
escape from the cylinder cocks. If the engine is run at a high speed with 
water in the cylinders, there is danger of breaking the cylinder or its 
head. The cylinder head packing may be blown out and it is hard on all 
the parts of the engine. However, the REEVES engine with its balanced 
D valve, which can be driven from its seat by the water, will stand more 
abuse than other types of valves. 

The ideal way for maintaining the water level in the boiler is, while 
the work is going on, to keep the pump or injector going continuously. 
If the water is forced into the boiler at a rapid rate for a short duration 
and then shut off for a time, the exhaust heater cannot do efficient work. 
Both the pump and injector can be throttled by partially closing the steam 
valve on the pump and the water valve on the injector. Endeavor to keep 
the glass guage half full of water. Do not rely entirely on the glass guage 
as the fittings may be stopped up with lime or the valves may be closed. 
Blow the lower fitting out every day. 

Never let the water get out of sight. When the boiler is level and 
the water gets down to the lower packing gland, there is two inches of 
water over the crown sheet. If it gets much lower than this, there is 
danger of melting out the fusible plug. If this should happen, there is 
an extra plug sent with the engine in the trimming box and should be 
carried in the tool box of the engine. When a fusible plug is melted out, 
it should be refilled with tin so that it will be ready for use should the 
water again be left get too low. Never substitute a solid plug for the 
fusible plug. 

Here are a few things which will make an injector fail to work. 
Scale or dirt in either of the three jets of the injector, a leaky suction 
pipe, a choked screen on the end of the suction pipe and a limed up feed 
pipe where the water enters the boiler are the most common troubles. 
To examine the strainer, remove the bushing where the suction pipe enters 
the tank. The pump sometimes fails to start due to rust, when it has 
been standing idle for a long time. In this case take off one of the heads and 
break the piston loose by pushing it to the end of its stroke. Special 
printed matter on the pump and injector will be found in the trimmings 
box and should be preserved. 

The speed of the engine can be changed about 200 revolutions by 
changing the position of the weights of the REEVES Governor, which is 
done from the platfoi'm of the engine. If a very special speed is required, 
one of the pulleys may be made larger by wrapping it. If a higher speed 
on the engine is required, make the pulley on the governor larger for a lower 
speed, increase the diameter of the pulley on the crank shaft. 

Always keep the throttle wide open for continuous work, allowing the 
engine to be regulated by the governor and always hook up the valve gear 
to get a short cut ofl^ on the valve, causing a high pressure in the cylinder, 
which will insure a greater degree of expansion and better economy will 
follow. To fix the reverse lever for these conditions, especially for a con- 
stant load such as running a machine or doing draw bar work, hook up the 
reverse lever toward the center notch till the speed begins to diminish, 
then move the lever out one notch, this will bring up the speed and give 
the engine sufficient power to carry the load. If more power is required 
for a short while, such as going up a steep grade or plowing through a 
tough piece of ground, or if the steam pressure is low, the reverse lever 
can be hooked down a notch and when conditions adjust themselves, it 
can be hooked up again. When the maximum power of the engine is re- 
quired, the reverse lever is placed in the end notch but when economy is 
expected, the load should be reduced so that the lever can be hooked up 
and the closer to the center notch it is placed, the more economical on 
fuel and water the engine will be. 


Starting When the reverse lever is in the end notch of the section, the steam 

a Load is cut off at three-fourths of the stroke. There is a blank space between 

this notch and the end stop and when the lever is at the end stop, the 
valve admits steam nearly the entire length of the stroke. The engine 
should not be run this way for continuous work but this provision is 
simply for convenience in starting a heavy load and tightening the drive 
belt when the steam pressure is low. There is no dead point in the REEVES 
engine when reverse lever is in the end notch nor is there when the reverse 
lever is hooked up one notch. 

The intercepting valve is used for converting the cross compound engine 
into a simple double cylinder engine and is useful in starting the engine, 
stretching the drive belt, and when extra power is needed on the road 
or at the plow, especially when the steam pressure is low. This valve is 
simply an emergency device to help the engine out of hard places and 
should not be used for continuous work. The intercepting valve not only 
gives extra power for starting but with its use, the dead points disappear 
so that it starts a compound engine like our double simple engine. When 
the lever controlling this valve is in the upward position the engine is com- 
pound and when it is down, it is simple. 

Connecting The crank box of the connecting rod has a wedge for adjustment con- 

Rod trolled by a screw in the top and one in the bottom. The thick part of the 

Adjustment wedge is at the bottom. The crosshead box of the rod is adjusted by 
a wedge which is driven with a hammer. Undo the setscrew and drive 
the wedge with a hammer and draw up the setscrew again after driving. 
Always see that the boxes are loose enough to prevent heating. Usually 
a box should be loose enough so that it can be moved by hand lengthwise 
on its own bearing. 

Crosshead The crosshead shoes are wedge-shaped and are held by bolts running 

Adjustment through their sides. To adjust them, slacken up the bolts and drive the 
shoes. Care should be taken to adjust the shoe which will put the piston 
rod in line with the guides. A pair of calipers or a compass will aid in 
doing this. The adjustment of the crosshead shoes can be checked by 
watching the rod while it is running where it enters the stuffing box. If 
the rod moves up and down, the crosshead is not the right height with 
reference to the piston. When the shoes are adjusted correctly, the rod 
will run true. See that the crosshead fits loosely in the guides by shaking it. 

Boxes with The main crank shaft bearing and the valve gear boxes are adjusted 

Liners by liners. Always keep enough liners between the cap and the box so that 

the cap may be drawn up solid. Never depend on lock nuts to adjust the 
cap, as it is more apt to wear out and heat. The valve gear connections 
and the eccentric yoke should be loose enough to shake them a little by 
hand, and to note if the crank .shaft box needs adjusting, the shaft will 
move backward and forward if it is too lose. This can be very easily 
determined by sight. 

Care of The valve is balanced with a ring against the steam chest cover. There 

Balanced is nothing about it to get out of order if it is properly oiled. If the engine 

Valve is put away for a long time, it will be well to remove the steam chest 

cover to oil the ring where it fits on the valve, also oil the valve seat and 
the seat against the cover. It is also well in this case to oil the inside 
of the cylinder. A heavy oil, such as cylinder oil, is very good for this 
purpose. If the engine is not thus oiled when put away and if the valve 
ring is stuck with rust it can be taken off and cleaned up with oil. See that 
the springs are active in holding out the ring to the steam chest cover. 
Another good way to get the valve in shape to have a long rest is just 
before the engine is shut down for the last time, force a pint of oil through 
the engine by screwing the pump plunger up by hand as quickly as possible. 
This also protects the cylinder from rust. 



Gaskets On a new engine the nuts on the steann chest cover, cylinder heads, 

intercepting valve and on the steam pipe flanges should be drawn occa- 
sionally in the first week the engine is used. ■ Never draw the nuts up 
unduly tight but simply take up the shrinkage of the gasket. If the nuts 
are kept tight while the gasket is being vulcanized, it will never blow out. 
If it is desirable to fix a gasket so that the head, cover or fiange can be 
easily removed, dress one side of the gasket with graphite. The side 
thus dressed will not adhere to the metal and the other side which is not 
dressed will stick and help to hold it in place. 

Drain in In freezing weather, at night and when engine is not used, be sure 

Freezing that all the drain cocks are open so that water cannot collect in pipes and 

Weather castings. Every place that should be drained is provided with a plug. The 

tanks can be drained by taking out a large plug from the pipe which 
connects the tanks. To drain the main steam pipe and cylinders; Whil^ 
the engine is running, with the throttle wide open and all the cocks open 
about the cylinders, steam chest, heater, receiver and intercepting valve, 
shut off the steam by the valve on top of the dome. The steam pump and 
injector should be treated in the same manner. When the engine is put 
away for the winter, in addition to the foregoing, the plug in the bottom 
of the boiler should be taken out to drain the water that will not run out at 
the blow off pipe. 

There is no advantage in blowing off the boiler when the pressure 
is high, yet blowing out the water witFi 10 or 15 pounds pressure will do 
no harm. The little mud in the bottom of the boiler that can be blown 
out is just what is lying near the blow-ofif and can easily be washed out 
when cleaning the boiler. 

Clean out the boiler as often as the water demands. In ordinary 
conditions, once a week is sufficient, but in case of muddy water or cleir 
water which contains a great deal of foreign matter or solids, the boiler 
should be cleaned more than once a week. There are places in which the 
water is clear but so full of impurities that to keep the space between 
the tubes and the side of the fire box from filling up, the boiler has to be 
washed out every day the eng'ine is used. There are hand holes in every 
place where cleaning is necessary. Also in the top of the boiler where 
water can be forced through the tubes and over the crown sheet. There 
is a scraper provided for removing the scales and mud and is specially 
adapted to the cleaning out the sides of the fire box. 

lioiler Scale If the water forms scale in the boiler, something should be used to 

loosen and prevent more from forming. It is impossible to recommend a 
boiler compound not knowing the nature of the water which will be used, 
Soda ash is good to loosen and prevent the most common scale which is 
carbonate of lime and sulphate of lime. In average conditions 5 lbs. of 
soda ash to 200 gallons of water will give good results. This proportion 
may answer until the results can be noted. If the inside of the boiler 
presents a clean, bright surface, too much soda ash is used. If the scale 
does not loosen or .still accumulates, more soda ash is required to do the 
work. The inside surface of the boiler should be examined each time it is 
cleaned, as the water is changed from time to time and the water taken 
from the same stream changes at difi'erent seasons of the year due to 
the rainfall. The ideal condition is to have on the surface a very thin 
coating of lime. 

Boiler The Dearborn Chemical Co., Chicago, III. will analyze water and pre- 

Compound scribe a boiler compound, if a gallon of water is sent to them. In this way 
a compound suited to the water and the right quantity can be used. The 
U. S. Graphite Co., Saginaw, Michigan, will sell a boiler graphite that is 
recommended to loosen and prevent all kinds of scale and not injure the 
boiler. The precaution in the foregoing paragraph should be heeded in 
using any kind of ingredients for the prevention of scale. 

Stack and 






vSet ting- 



Reach Rod 


When cleaning out the boiler, the stack and exhaust nozzles should 
occasionally be examined. The moisture which comes from the exhaust 
steam causes the soot to adhere to the inside of the stack and also to the 
exhaust nozzle bushings. The reduction in the openings will hinder the 
draught m the case of the stack and reduce the power of the engine in the 
case of the exhaust nozzles. 

_ The boiler is of the water bottom type. There being no circulation 
HI the part below the grates which affords an additional receptacle for all 
kinds oi sediment. Thus the sides of the tire box are not so apt to be 
ruined by an accumulation of .sediment which is likely to collect between 
times of cleaning, especially if the water is very bad. This type of boiler 
allords an air tight ash pan which is useful in holding fire all night. 

The boiler being of the water bottom type will not foam except under 
the most unfavorable conditions, namely, running too lung with very bad 
water. There is nothing that can be put into the water to prevent foam- 
ing. The only thing to do is a more frequent change of water. Hooking 
up the valve gear of the engine to the limit will also help to prevent foaming, 
in that it will reduce the consumption of the steam. 

The eccentric is keyed to the shaft and needs no attention but should 
it be necessary to reset the eccentric, it can be done by the following; Set 
the engine on dead center, then the eccentric should be nearly opposite 
the crank pin or at a place that will bring the pin in the lower part of the 
eccentric yoke, central with the tumble or reversing shaft. To test it 
more accurately, the valve or valve rod will not move when the reverse 
lever is pulled backward and forward, while the engine is on dead center. 
If the valve rod does thus move, the tumble shaft is either too high or too 
low, more likely too high on an old engine, which can be fixed by placing 
a hner between the engine frame and the rear saddle. This willraise the 
crank shaft and compensate for the amount the crank shaft bearing has 
been worn down and will be equivalent to lowering the tumble shaft box. 
If perfect results cannot be had by placing liners under the crank shaft 
bearing, this will show that the eccentric should be slightly moved The 
direction it should be moved will suggest itself. 

After the eccentric is found to be correctly set, all there is then 
to do with the valve is to .see that it has the same amount of lead at each 
end, which will be about one-sixteenth of an inch. This valve gear will 
then be given an equal cut off. The lead should be looked after every few 
years, as the wearing of the crank shaft box, the eccentric yoke and'valve 
gear connections will change the lead so that it will have more on the one 
end and less on the other end of the valve. 

The reach rod which connects the reverse lever with the tumble shaft 
and which controls the proportion of cut off on the forward and backward 
motion may for some reason need to be adjusted. Set the reverse lever in 
the end notch for the forward motion and note the maximum port opening 
which the engine is turned, then place reverse lever in the other end notch 
and if the port opening is not the same, on this motion, the case will suggest 
if the reach rod should be shortened or lengthened. The ends of the rod 
are screwed on and can be easily changed. 

Keep every thing up, never allow a box to pound. If a nut or bolt is 
loose, draw it up before it ruins something else. Keep the guide chain 
reasonably tight. 

If you find the valves slap when the engine is running without a load 
and the reverse lever is in the end notch, don't imagine there is something 
wrong with the valve but hook the engine up a notch or two and it will quit 
The reason for this is the very long cut off will reduce the pressure in the 
cylinder so that the compression or cushion is greater than the steam 
pressure in the chest and therefore is not able to hold the valve up to 
its seat. 

If the engine runs while the reverse lever is in the center notch, don't 
imagine there is something wrong with the setting of the valve. If there 
was, it would not thus run. The reason for this is that the boxes of the 
engine run very freely and the lead of the valve hlls the clearance with 
steam, the expansion of which drives the empty engine. 

Test Every engine before it leaves the factory is thoroughly tested in every 

respect, both under the belt and on the road. A maxnnum brake test of 
four times the normal horse power is applied and an economy teat is 
made on every engine, using an average load. By this means we know 
for a certainty that every engine which goes from our Works is perfect 
as far as it is possible to make it, and if there is something about the engine 
that don't seem right, remember that it was right when it. left our Works 
and likely is something out of adjustment which a competent engineer will 
find if he carefully reads the directions herein given. 

Directions for Setting Valves 


Reeves Simple and Compound Engines 

To set the valve, turn the engine on dead center. The crank 
pin is on dead center when the valve rod will not move while the 
reverse lever is moved. The eccentric is keyed to the shaft, there- 
fore all there is to do in setting the valve is to divide the lead be- 
tween each end of the valve. The lead is about one sixteenth of an 
inch. The valve is set by shifting the valve on the valve stem 
which is secured by clamp blocks. The valve should be loose be- 
tween the blocks but have no end play. 

To examine the reach rod, place the re^'ersc lever in the end 
notch and by turning the engine see how much the port is opened 
on each end of the valve, then reverse the motion by placing the 
lever in the other end notcli and if the port opening is more or less 
it can be controlled by changing the length of the reach rod. 

In ease of placing a new crank shaft in the engine, the eccentric 
can be set as ftillows: Place the engine on dead center by means of 
a tram, and the eccentric nearly opposite the crank pin, at a point 
that will l)riiig the lower pin of the eccentric yoke central with the 
reversing shaft. This should be tested on both centers by moving 
the reverse lever to see that there is no movement ni the valve rod 
while this is done. If this cannot be accomplished by placing the 
eccentric, the crank shaft may have to be raised due to WTar in the 
crank shaft box. An easy way to raise the box is to place a liner 
between the engine frame and the saddle. After the eccentric is 
correctly sot it should be keyed to the shaft. 

Emerson-Brantingliam Company 

Reeves Works Columbus, Indiana, U. S. A. 

Aa'JU S-lo-500